Bird Photography with Nikon Z mirrorless cameras

Autofocus settings for birds in flight with Nikon Z cameras

Brown pelican in flight, captured with a Nikon Z6 mirrorless camera and 200-500mm f/5.6E VR zoom Nikkor lens.

I’m back from my third annual San Diego Birding & Wildlife photo workshop, and this year I decided to use the workshop as a testing ground for the Nikon Z6 mirrorless digital camera. Ever since the Nikon Z6 and Z7 cameras were released, the general consensus seems to be that their hybrid phase/contrast autofocus system was great for everything except fast moving subjects, like flying birds. I decided to test the Z6 myself and see how well it could perform in the field in real-world conditions.

Update: I now have the Nikon Z9. See my recommended Z9 autofocus settings here

For four days I put the Z6 through its paces, and came away with the conclusion that by tweaking the autofocus settings, you can nail BIFs with this camera almost as well as I could with my tried and true Nikon D850 DSLR. The trick is to customize your autofocus settings to something other than the defaults, and the settings I chose will actually seem counter-intuitive. More on that in a moment.

First step: Check Your Nikon Z Firmware

Make sure you are using Firmware 2.0 or later with the Nikon Z6 and Z7 cameras.

Before you begin, make sure that you’ve updated the firmware in your Nikon Z6 or Z7 camera to the latest version. In 2019, Nikon released firmware version 2.0, which dramatically improved autofocus performance and tweaked the algorithms for the AF area modes. If you’re not using firmware v 2.x for the Nikon Z6/Z7, you should update it immediately!

Step 2: Set AF to Continuous Servo

snowy egret
Snowy egret, La Jolla, CA with Nikon Z6 and 200-500mm f/5.6E VR zoom Nikkor lens

For moving subjects, make sure you enable continuous-servo autofocus (AF-C). You can do this easily in the “i” menu in the Z6/Z7 or, for fast access, I have my Fn2 button on the front of my cameras set to change AF servo (rear dial) or AF area (front dial). I particularly like how easy it is to change AF patterns while looking through the viewfinder in the Z6/Z7.

Use the i Menu or custom function button (Fn2) to set the focus mode and AF-area mode.

Step 3: Set the AF Tracking & Lock-on Settings

Probably the most misunderstood setting in Nikon digital cameras is the “Focus tracking with lock-on” option in the Custom Settings menu. In the Nikon Z6 and Z7 cameras, you’ll find this under Custom Setting a3. This setting sets the sensitivity of the camera to sudden, large-scale changes to perceived subject distance. It does not, however, affect the camera’s ability to follow-focus a continuously moving subject.

Let me explain the lock-on setting this way: It slows down the camera’s AF response to a SUDDEN change in subject distance. If you’re using continuous-servo focus (AF-C mode) and something comes between you and your subject (bird/wing/pole/branch), the camera AF system has to make a decision: Stay locked on the original subject distance, or shift the focus to the new subject. If you are trying to use continuous autofocus to rapidly change between different subjects, you want the latency set to a short value. But if you’re tracking an erratic subject, like a bird in flight, where it’s tough to keep your AF point on it (and wings may be occasionally blocking the bird’s body), you want a LONGER latency. Otherwise, the camera will try to focus on wings or anything else that pops into your active AF area.

The explanation of custom setting a3 (Focus tracking with lock-on)

In Custom menu item a3, you can choose a value for blocked-shot delay from 1-5, where 1 is the shortest delay (almost none) and 5 is the longest (close to two seconds). The default value is 3. What I discovered was that with the default settings, the camera would focus on the bird but I could see “jitter” in the viewfinder. Sure enough, when I shot continuous bursts, I’d get great focus in 2 or 3 out of 5 shots, but then I’d get softer focus with the other images in that sequence. Dialing the tracking setting to 1 or 2 made it worse.

Setting the blocked shot response to 5 improves focus tracking for birds.

On a suggestion from my Image Doctors co-host, Rick Walker, I decided to change the Lock-on setting to its slowest value, 5. Guess what? the Z6 immediately stopped its focus “jitter” behavior on flying birds. I saw no loss of follow-focus performance, and I started getting 9/10 shots dead sharp. The one caveat of using this setting is that if I want to change to a different subject quickly, I have to release and then re-press the AF-ON button on the camera. Below is a sequence of 13 continuous shots, with the lock-on set to 5. Nailed it!

Step 4: Select the appropriate AF area mode

The AF-Area mode allows you to choose the size and characteristics of the active focus area in the Nikon Z6/Z& viewfinder. For stationary subjects, or subjects that are perched in trees and/or partially obscured, I usually go with Dynamic-area AF mode.

For birds in flight, I recommend switching to one of the Wide-Area AF patterns. Since firmware 2.0, Wide-Area AF includes nearest-subject priority. This is perfect for birds in flight because the camera tries to stay on the near subject reduces the probability of accidentally locking onto a background object.


After extensive shooting with the Nikon Z6 and 200-500mm f/5.6E VR Nikkor lens, I found focus acquisition to be nearly on par with what I experienced with my Nikon D850. There was initially a lot of focus “jitter” that lead to soft shots when I used continuous servo AF on moving subjects. I was able to nearly eliminate erratic focus lock by setting Custom Menu item a3 to its longest delay setting, 5. While DSLR autofocus systems in the top-end cameras probably still have a slight edge in focus speed and acquisition, I am very content with using the Nikon Z system for typical wildlife photography.

My AF settings for photographing birds with the Nikon Z6 and Nikon Z7 mirrorless cameras

  • AF Servo Mode: Continuous (AF-C)
  • Custom Menu A (Autofocus)
    • a1: Release
    • a2: Focus
    • a3: Lock-on (5)
    • a4: OFF
    • a5: ALL
    • a6: ON
    • a7: AF-activation OFF (back-button focus only)
    • a8: default settings
    • a9: OFF
    • a10: default settings
    • a11: OFF
    • a12: OFF
  • Autofocus Area Mode
    • Dynamic-area AF (stationary or perched birds)
    • Wide-area Small (birds in flight)

22 thoughts on “Bird Photography with Nikon Z mirrorless cameras”

  1. Excellent article, Jason.

    I agree with your suggestions. With my D850 and D500, I would set up the camera and it was relatively rare to make changes. The Z cameras focus system has a lot of good alternatives, so it’s important to understand your miss, and when alternate settings might be useful. I find with my Z6 I’m using at least 4-5 different AF Area modes 10% of the time or more – compared to only 2-3 area modes got that level of use on my D850.

  2. I totally agree, Eric! Also I’ve noticed that I’ve had to adjust my timing because the image in the EVF isn’t quite as fluid as you get with an optical viewfinder.

  3. Thank you for the most helpful article in the whole plethora of Z-related internet “knowledge”. I bought a Z7 based on articles describing the Z cameras being sufficiently fast for BIF. In spite of many articles describing the AF as being hopeless.

    You are the first describing what can be done, complete with examples. Extremely helpful – thanks!

  4. Thanks for this excellent summary of shooting BIFs with a Z camera! This provides a concise reference to the excellent, in-depth discussion you provide in your Birding With the Nikon System class. I’m excited to try these suggestions in the field.

  5. Great post! Just came across this today…have you updated to FW 3.0 and, if so, have you made any changes to your setup? Thanks!

  6. Your post after upgrading to firmware 3.0 deals with eye detection and not subject tracking. Have you tried to use subject tracking after the 3.0 upgrade to track BIF?

  7. Awesome! I’m assuming that the settings would apply to other fast moving objects like race cars/bikes/boats etc?

  8. Subject tracking remains the same, but it is easier to implement now. I find that for wildlife subjects, subject tracking often gets “confused” when there are low-contrast targets.

  9. Hi,
    Great article. I am just starting out with Bird photography using my Z6.
    For Z6 with Nikon 200-500mm lens do you do handheld photography or you use a monopod with pan/tilt head.

  10. Jason,

    Thanks for this. I’ve been using my D850 on AF-C and d9 or Group to photograph ospreys diving for fish on my local river with my 200-500. I’ll try your settings for use with my Z7.

    With the D850 I’d get out of focus shots because the AF would transition from the bird to the trees on the riverbank as soon as the osprey neared the water surface, even though Group is supposed to bias toward near subjects. Will I have this problem with the Z7 using Wide Small dynamic AF area and AF-C?

  11. Hi Mike-
    Hard to say how the Z7 will perform, but one of the hardest subjects for me has always been animals near the water, especially if you’re at eye-level.
    I would try both wide small AND wide large to see what works best for you.

  12. Happy to come across your information. I am trying your settings on my Z6 with 500mm pf to ‘catch’ the swifts that fly around and nest in my house.
    For now I have some better results With my Z6 then with my D500 , but this could be luck. 99% are not keepers for…they are swift…

    What I find is that using automatic field it seems easier to acquire initial focus with the Z6 on fast flyers.

  13. thank you Jason.
    •a3: Lock-on (5) ist the magic trick
    With your recommended settings my Z6 is a new camera; it´s now a joy for use in wildlife photography.
    Kind regards from the southwest of germany

  14. Jason, Just found your great article, would the tracking with lock on still apply to latest version 3.11 of my Z7.

    Any advice for this scenario please,
    Z is primed when a large bird suddenly appears in a clear or sightly clouded sky?
    I miss so many shots because I don’t find the bird in the EVF, should I be holding the back button down while searching, what is the best focus mode for carry around to cover this situation where focus cannot be achieved because I haven’t found the target?
    Did not have this problem when I used a D5.

    Thank you

  15. Thanks for sharing this tutorial. It’s easy to understand and easy to setup. My friends often say that the pictures I take of birds are noise and blur, I did it your way, and It’s better now.

  16. Hi David-
    The Z7 is going to have slower AF acquisition than the D5 (which has one of Nikon’s fastest AF systems). The best thing to do is try to pre-focus manually to a rough distance, use focus limiting on your lens (if it has it), and only press the AF-ON button when you have the bird in the viewfinder. Using Wide-Area Large should help, too.

  17. Many thanks Jason, thinking about your reply I may be holding the AF on while searching for the target.
    Will be concentrating on your other tips too.

  18. Just a new member here, but a long time Nikon DSLR user, currently with a D6. Absent a review from any of the on line resources, can you show me your preferred settings fir BIF, thank you

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.